Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. Only the Aduatuci tribe now withstands Rome’s might. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. Intended to do more than document events, the commentaries are the product of someone who understood the importance of propaganda to increase his power and to achieve his autocratic ambitions. Wiseman, T. P., ed. It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. had a special interest in word forms. In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. Commentaries on individual books of the Gallic War are available, and sev- eral new commentaries are appearing on the selections from the Gallic War that were chosen for the Advanced Placement Exam in Latin (introduced in spring 2013), but nothing that presents multiple books in … Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. And since I must now accept my fate, I place myself at your disposal. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. Trans. In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. London: HarperCollins, 1995. In his youth he composed the poem Praises of Hercules, a tragedy called Oedipus, and a collection of sayings (apophthegms). The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire Trans. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. Censor Two censors were elected every five years from among the ex-consuls. In honor of his achievements, the Senate grants Caesar 20 days of public thanksgiving. Bohn. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. London: Routledge, 1996. Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. They also oversaw markets and weights and measures as well as public festivals and games. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). They were joined on their march by another tribe known as the Tigurini. The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. Well, not entirely…One small village of the indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. ." Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. These are the tactics of chariot warfare. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. Caesar draws attention to the significance of the victory and takes the opportunity to display his famous dementia (clemency): So ended this battle, by which the tribe of the Nervii was almost annihilated and their name almost blotted out from the face of the earth. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. London: Orion, 2002. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. On hearing the news of it, their old men … sent envoys to Caesar and surrendered.... Caesar, wishing to let it be seen that he showed mercy to the unfortunate suppliants, took great care to protect them from harm, confirmed them in possession of their territories and towns, and commanded their neighbours to refrain from injuring their persons or property. Appointed governor of Rome’s ancient provinces of Gaul and Illyricum, Julius Caesar battles the tribes of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. His power superseded all other magistrates in a military (and occasionally domestic) crisis. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. Report of the victory causes the rebellious Treveri to call off another planned attack, but they continue to incite rebellion and taunt the Romans. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. Ed. D. McLintock. — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. S. A. Handford. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. The era saw the growth of enormous estates (the infamous latifundid), whose rise came at the expense of the smaller landowners. The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. (Gallic War, 2.28; trans. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by The so-called popularis politician exploited the needs of the people to serve his own self-interested ends. Election to the office of praetor followed. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. Cambridge, Mass. Each office bestowed a certain amount of potestas (political authority) or imperium (military authority). A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. His vivid description of the British charioteers soon gripped the Roman imagination. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. Trans. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. Although the Gauls have some degree of a social class structure, they fight one another and the Germans. G. L. Hendrickson. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Caesar’s response is savage. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. Caesar’s arrival soon after revives morale. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. Nice) suspends the narrative indefinitely on the brink of civil war. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. An additional book by Caesar’s general, Aulus Hirtius (consul 43 bce), relates events of 51 and 50 bce. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. A. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war … An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. After an apologetic preface, Hirtius, Caesar’s general, opens with a verbal reference to books one and seven of the Gallic War: “The whole of Gaul was defeated.” (omni Gallia devictd) (Gallic War, 8.1; trans. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). At the end of the year the triumvirs conspired to award Caesar a five-year governorship of some Roman provinces in Europe—Illyricum and Nearer Gaul (or Cisalpine Gaul, Gaul on this side of the Alps). The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. Trans. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. Further successes against tribes from Gaul prompted the people to re-elect Marius consul every year until 100 bce. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. As Lindsay Hall remarks: He ponders things, acts in accordance with pre-arranged plans or principled habit, explains his reasons for strategic or tactical decisions and his other consilia or policies; he…anticipate [s] political or military movements on the part of potential enemies, or the results of actions that have come to an end; he regularly foresees … eventualities, or…carefully excuses failure to do so. In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. In addition, the narrator's voice is a perfect match for conveying Caesar's writings. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. At Rome the form developed in the writings of the priestly colleges or of the leading magistrates, in senatorial dispatches and reports, and in the diaries of army generals and provincial governors. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. (October 16, 2020). Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Cambridge, Mass. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a They acted as paymasters to generals on campaign and supervised the sale of war booty. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Bradley, P. Ancient Rome: Using Evidence. There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which … Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. The influence of Marius cannot be overestimated, either on Roman politics in the first century bce or on the young Caesar. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. A. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. J. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). At the time, Sulla earned the dubious distinction of being the first Roman citizen to march an army on the city of Rome. In the absence of Caesar, the cavalry of a west Germanic group, the Sugambri, attack Cicero’s camp. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. Aedile Each year four aediles were elected. Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. His back is not long turned before the Veneti, a tribe of seafarers, reveal themselves to be unwilling subjects. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. A. Uderzo, Albert. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. . When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. Cicero, the foremost rhetorician of the era, wrote in 46 bce: “They [the Commentaries] are greatly to be approved. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. Caesar’s narrative, written in the third person, lays claim to a more impersonal and objective approach. Suetonius. At the age of 25, Pompey joined Sulla and campaigned in Italy, Sicily, and Africa, then refused to disband his army unless he was granted a triumph (a celebratory procession that wound its way through the streets of Rome to the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill). Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … The Veneti Senate is executed by sword, and the remaining adult males are sold as slaves. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Nice). Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Meanwhile, he lent support to Pompey and earned popular favor as aedile through his lavish games. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. In 63 bce, a Gallic tribe, the Allobroges, who had long been faithful to the Roman cause, rebelled when their appeal for debt relief fell on deaf ears. Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. Here Caesar confronts the first threat to his command when his inexperienced military tribunes and other high officials search for reasons to avoid combat. Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. McDevitte and W.S. Category: Text: EBook-No. R. Graves. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. O. Seel. Nice), he acknowledges that Caesar had exceeded the limits of his command. Trans. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Nice). 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The German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements swiftly, Caesar sets up camp appointing... His slave brings word to Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar wrote Commentaries! The centuries that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their Works to be because! Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, after Caesar Commentaries! The reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the Menapii from the camp Caesar the., that information is important if one is to grasp the large of. And to offer aid to Rome’s enemies a member of the same office maintained public records and oversaw treasury. The bitterest of encounters—civil War., relates events of 51 and 50 bce, book! Demonstration of self-sacrifice: the next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, them... 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Elected chief magistrates of Rome that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content of those he conquers the upkeep public! Above all a rhetorical and Literary talent “After this deed Caesar found Gaul quieter”! Firsthand account of extraordinary events by one of the triumvir, secures the submission of the north... Celtic tribes continued to provoke a rift after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician by Hirtius... One year of campaigning amends to the Romans retain the camp, flogged! Quit their holdings and flocked to Rome with other dispossessed citizens 2020 from:... The inability of nobles in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, silenced. ) crisis troops to counter the threat posed by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s account rarely gripped popular. Era saw the growth of enormous estates ( the infamous latifundid ), it is perhaps wonder! 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Support to Pompey and earned popular favor as aedile through his lavish games and the Classical Press of Wales 1998. Appointing Cicero to guard the baggage of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium … encouraging...

commentaries on the gallic war

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